Showing posts with label Virus. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Virus. Show all posts

Even Pharaoh Died due to Virus – Part 2 - Virus 41

Saturday, July 29, 2023

You may read the previous part (Part 1):

- Even Pharaoh Died due to Virus – Part 1 - Virus 41 | Tanza Erlambang Update

Fig 01- The book, written by Ismail Kadare

In modern time or at least since 16th century, smallpox lead to million dead per year. It was estimated about 500 millions dead in the 20th century alone.

Smallpox dead toll was very very much higher compared to many wars included World War I and II combined.

Thank you to doctor Edward Jenner for his great work to find smallpox vaccine in England in 1796.

Since then, infection rate and mortality rate decreased dramatically in many countries, especially in Europe and America.

Fig 02- A mask, just illustration

WHO has started the program to vaccine world population since 1950. The organization declared that smallpox eradicated in the world in 1980.

Success history to contain virus though vaccines in the world.

Fig 03- A giant hibiscus, illustration

I really don’t understand why some people still doubt with vaccines. Do you?

# Previous postings:

- Tax Free for International Visitors – Sign 43 | Tanza Erlambang Update

- Wild Mushrooms on the Yards - Gardening and Hobby 33 | Tanza Erlambang Update

- An Indigo Bunting was Seen on Feeder – Critter 37 | Tanza Erlambang Update

- Is Tempeh Better than Tofu? - Part 2 – Food Variety 30 | Tanza Erlambang Update

Even Pharaoh Died due to Virus – Part 1 - Virus 41

Friday, March 24, 2023

We may know the deadly disease called as a smallpox. The disease date back to thousand years ago, about in the timelines of ancient Egypt Pharaoh authorities.

Fig 01- Pharaoh, Ramses V (credit to Google).

Two well known viruses caused smallpox diseases, they are:

- Variola major

- Variola minor

One of very famous historical figures of ancient Egypt Pharaoh, Ramses V died due to smallpox.

He was the pharaoh of 19th dynasty, ruled Egypt in the short time, from 1150 to 1145 BCE, just 5 years.

You might be wonder: How do we know the caused of Ramses V dead?

Fig 02- A mini garden, illustration only

As reported by World Health Organization (WHO, May 1980) that after Ramses V mummy discovered in 1898, scientists have known the caused of pharaoh died.

The lesions on Ramses V face indicated acute illness due to a smallpox disease at very young age.

Fig 03- Fruit, illustration only

# To be continued to Part 2

## Previous postings:

- Social Range in the Bird of Guinean Cock of the Rock | Tanza Erlambang Update

- We Have Seen Jumping Worms in Louisiana – Critter 7 | Tanza Erlambang Update

- Is Suicide Based on Individual Decision Only? | Tanza Erlambang Update

- Green Bridges for Plants and Pollinators – Sign 11 | Tanza Erlambang Update

- Finnish Nightmare in the Eyes of Far Eastern Countries - Part 1 | Tanza Erlambang Update

Will We Have Hantavirus Outbreaks or Pandemic? - Virus 6

Thursday, April 9, 2020
A case of Hantavirus infection in China

People was quite “hysteria” when knew there is another virus, Hantavirus infection in addition to Covid-19.

The news was spread around the globe by Chinese English newspaper, Global Times about two weeks ago, exactly in the middle of Coronavirus pandemic.

The question then, Will We Have Hantavirus Outbreaks or Pandemic? Before answer the question, let’s know the first infection history.

We knew Hantavirus during Korean war, 1951 – 1953. The virus caused:
- dead to 190 American soldiers
- infected other 3,000 American soldiers

The infection was transmitted from rodents to human through:
- less likely by biting
- feces
- saliva
- urine

Hantavirus transmission from mouse to human
(credit to Herald journalism)

A reported said that fatality rate due to Hantavirus is about 38%, very much higher compared to Covid-19, around 3% to close to 10% in many places.

Yes, it is serious and dangerous. However, there is “little” possibility to be outbreaks or pandemic with at least 5 reasons:

1) No infection through human to human recorded until recently.
2) Not all mice carry Hantavirus
3) house mice and roof rats have never known to infect people with Hantavirus
4) limited people only contact to mouse that carries Hantavirus
5) Early infected persons can be treated better and likely cured in the intensive care

Hope, one dead case of Hantavirus infection in Yunnan province, China on March 2020 will not spark to all over the world.

Homemade Face Masks to Combat Spread of Covid-19 – Virus 5

Thursday, March 26, 2020
Sewing own face masks (credit to NBC Connecticut)

We might all knew that many hospitals are facing shortage of protective gears (health supplies) for health care workers or Covid-19 patients or general public across America.

Some of important supplies are:
- testing kits
- eye protection
- gloves
- gown
- face masks (surgical and N95 type respirator)

In case of face masks, these disposable items which cost less than 75 cents are ran out as well. Un-believable for rich country such as America.

One hospital may need 5,000 to 15,000 face masks: surgical face masks to patients and N95 respirators for medical workers.

Designs of homemade face masks (credit to Dr Monique Tello)

Luckily, sewing people (mom, nanny and kids) step up to supply the homemade face masks to hospital in many states.

You may ask a question: could homemade masks protect us from Covid-19?

Before answer this question, I posted article: Can Face Masks Contain Wuhan Coronavirus?

The commercial face masks, I quote from my own post: “The surgical mask is effective to block big droplets, but we may inhale very small droplets from the sides of filters.”

Moreover, “N95 respirator is able to block from 95% to 99% airborne pathogens, germs or virus. It is good for health care workers who handle Coronavirus patients (suspected or infected).”

The homemade face mask effectiveness is depend very much on the materials. The following material effectiveness to block 0.02 micron particles (less than Corona virus size):

- scarf is 49% effective
- silk is 54% effective
- linen is 62% effective
- cotton blend is 70% effective
- vacuum cleaner bag is 86% effective.

Thus, at least, homemade face masks are suitable to halt spreading of droplets from infected patients or preventing dispersion of coughing particles. 

When Will Vaccine for Covid-19 Available? - Virus 4

Sunday, March 22, 2020
A vial of Vaccine, just for illustration only (credit to Nasdaq)

In simple way, we all might know that vaccine is an antigen from a particular virus, bacteria or other pathogen agents, injected into human bodies.

The main purpose is to train, boost, encourage and trigger our immune system to recognize, then to combat a pathogen, in this case let’s say Covid-19.

We might wonder: why is it so long to find the effective vaccine for Covid-19?

The answer is that long steps and processes must be followed from searching and selecting vaccine candidates until to be ready for mass productions.

Step 1: Finding and develop “candidate” vaccines by available techniques such as messenger RNA

Step 2: Testing to animal (model)

Step 3: Clinical trial to human being. Trials to small number of people

Step 4: Trial to more people. To find out how immune system responds to potential Covid-19

Step 5: More and more patients are tested in long term.

Step 6: Reviewed by relevant agencies such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US

Step 7: This is a final step. If FDA approves, then mass production for cure the Covid-19

It will take 12 to 18 months from step 1 to step 7, if everything goes well. Thus, almost certainly that we will have no “medicine” to combat Covid-19 in this cycle. 

Older, Men and Preexisting conditions are Vulnerable to Covid-19 – Virus 3

Monday, March 16, 2020
Graph 1. The older, the weaker.

The interesting facts that the most vulnerable groups to Coronavirus (Covid-19) are older, men and people with preexisting conditions.

In term of ages, the most vulnerable is 80 years old or more. Let’s say that from 100 death cases, almost 15 dead are 80 years old. However, all kids with age of 0 to 9 years old are survive.

The question then Why?

We might “guess” the answer is that immune system is weaker over age. The few facts:
- older has few white blood cells, and less capable to fight new pathogen such as mutant Covid-19.
- virus may damage white cells and immune system, then invites other pathogens. These conditions could cause illness, and death.

 Graph 2. Men more vulnerable than women

Men died more than women due to Covid-19 as shown on Graph 2. This fact not only to Covid-19, but also to SARS (China, 2003) and MERS (Saudi Arabia, 2012).

There are two possible answers why women are stronger than men to fight virus:
- women hormones support the stronger immune system
- environmental factors such as men are smoker than women; and men limit their practice to hygiene life such as not washing their hands frequently.

Graph 3. Chronic diseases contributed to dead of Covid-19 patients

The answer why people with preexisting conditions vulnerable to Covid-19 is quite similar to older condition in which their immune system is weaker.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients are target for respiratory infection pathogen such as Covid-19.

Finally, in my opinion that it is important to stay healthy to fight any diseases!

Is there Affordable Kit to Detect Corona Virus? - Virus 2

Saturday, March 7, 2020
We talked about infected Corona virus from Wuhan, China: 

Illustration of aset kit to test Wuhan Corona virus
(credit to LabPulse)

Wuhan Corona virus also called as COVID-19 infected more than 100,000 people and caused at least 3,000 dead recently.

The problems are from spreading the diseases to testing the infection to finding the cure for diseases.

Availability of testing “machines” are limited, found only in certain facilities such as research centers, big hospitals or federal agencies.

The testing tool called as a PCR machine, cost from US$ 4,900 to US$ 90,000. It is said that price for US$ 15,000 is good enough.

The test is based on concept of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect genetic material, RNA in the virus. The results may be known after 1 to 3 days.

Corona virus, Covid 19 (credit to Texas DSHS).

The good news that a company, Co-Diagnostic Inc in Utah, USA invented new technology which is cheaper and easier to be applied to detect the present of Corona virus infection.

The company called its product as Logix Smart COVID-19 test kit,” based on concepts of PCR, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and a mathematical algorithm.

The specimens for testing are taken from:
- upper respiratory tract such as nasopharyngeal fluids and nasal swab
- lower respiratory tract such as sputum, tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage
- Serum from who has been suspected

Cost for Logix Smart COVID-19 test kit is US$700 per 100 test. It is mean that 1 test for detecting COVID-19 is US$ 7 only. The result will be known in 90 minutes.

In conclusion that Logix Smart COVID-19 test kit is very much cheaper and quicker compared to existent tests.

Italy and Germany have used this test kit successfully, hope, it will be distributed to all over the world soon.

# Yes, we need PCR machine with Logix Smart COVID-19 test kit:
- Other test kits could cost more than U$$100 and even thousands (based on several news resources) and take longer to know the results