Understanding Diseases in Human Body through Knockout Genes – Part 2

Wednesday, October 27, 2021

Gene knockout (credit to YouTube)

You may read Part 1:

The knockout will result in disrupt of targeted gene.

Since mouse is closely related to humans, thus, it is favorite animal for knockout experiments.

Especially with regard to genetic questions that relate to human physiology or behaviors.

At Figure above (top of this article), we can see how to target gene.

The introduce specific gene modification in mice by the use of embryonic stem (ES) cell, then produced knockout animal (mice).

As described by Hansson (2007) that knockout have become absolutely important in medical research.

Through targeting (removing) a specific gene, we can find out what happens once it is gone.

Little plant in the early autumn

It is lead to new understanding of normal development and disease processes, then identified new avenues for medical therapy.

# Previous postings:


Hansson, GK. 2007. ADVANCED INFORMATION. Gene modification in mice.

"The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007".

NIH (National Human Genome Research Institute). 2015. Knockout Mice.

America is Top Importer of Ornamental Fish – Part 1

Saturday, October 23, 2021

One of ornamental tropical fishes.

The international trade for ornamental fish involved billion dollars of money. The industry is worth more than US$20 billion.

The ornamental fish industry covers:

- drug

- feeds

- plants

- accessories

- glass

- and “plastic" aquarium

The industry is quite reasonable big enough, especially for small business (exporters) in developing countries.

There are around 125 countries trade ornamental fish, and it is believed will be expanded in term of volumes and values in the coming future. The exporters are commonly from developing countries, and importers are coming from industries countries.

Aquarium accessories.

Some countries such as Singapore and Japan are both as exporter and importer. Especially, Singapore imports aquarium fish from neighbor countries, then re-export to world market with higher bid.

The top five importers of ornament fish are following:

1.United State of America (USA) with values at US$42. 9 million

2. United Kingdom (UK) with values at US$29.5 million

3. Germany with values at US$23.4 million

4. Singapore with values at US$21.3 million

5. Japan with values at US$19.5 million

# To be continued to Part 2

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Understanding Diseases in Human Body through Knockout Genes – Part 1

Tuesday, October 19, 2021

Procedure to produce gene knockout animal (credit to Medindia)

Knockout is a technique to in-activate specific genes in human body.

The technique is part of biotechnology which has been used to modify living organisms in order to improve human welfare.

The knowledge has been around since a long time ago, may be dated back to 5000 B.C.E.

Inactivated specific genes is the biochemical and pathological basis that might be used to understand human diseases.

For these purposes the scientists produced a knockout mouse.

NIH (2015) informed that human share many genes with mice.

Thus, observing knockout mice gives information that can be used to better understand how a similar gene:

- may cause certain abnormality
- or contribute to diseases in humans.


Highway go to our city.

So far, knockout mice have been used to understand many diseases, including:

- cancer
- obesity
- heart disease
- diabetes
- arthritis
- substance abuse
- anxiety
- aging and Parkinson disease.

# To be continued to Part 2

## Previous postings:

Millions are Bitten by Snakes Every Year – Part 2

Friday, October 15, 2021

A snake crawling on the wood bridge

Previous post (Part 1):

- Millions are Bitten by Snakes Every Year – Part 1

what countries have the higher death due to snakebites?

Here the top five countries in the world, the death of snakebites per year (Top 5 Special Report, 2021):

1) India

- number of death around 15 thousands to 50 thousands

2) Indonesia

- death about 11,581

3) Nigeria

- about 9,900

4) Pakistan

- death about 8,264

5) Bangladesh

- number of death around 8,000

Street in the neighborhood, illustration only.

The places where people got snake bites are following:

- farming

- constructions

- plantations.

Moreover, you might wonder: why does top 5 death come from developing countries?

The main reason that no or lack of anti venom drugs to treat snakebites. The other reasons are:

- weak health systems

- less medical resources.

Finally, have you seen snakes in the natures?

# Previous postings:

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Local Jelly at the Farmer Market – Part 2 - Food Variety 15

Monday, October 11, 2021

Jellies in the jar at the farmer market

Previous post (Part 1):

It is a kind of dressing which is combines of a jam and a sauce or a seasoning. A typical classic product from southern states of America.

A pepper jelly is a vinegar or pectin base preserve, made with:

- hot peppers

- sugar and salt

So, you may guess the taste, yes, mix of sweet and spice of hot peppers which may include:

- Jalapeno

- Habanero

- Serrano

The makers of Bulldog Pepper Jelly from city of New Orleans, Louisiana claimed that their assorted jellies are locally grown, not imported from other states or other foreign countries.

A sign of farmer market

Pepper jelly was popular in America during 1980s to 1990s.

The product is consumed or used for multiple purposes such as:

- glaze on meats, chicken wings, fish and on vegetables.

- topping for crackers, ice cream, cheesecake, cheese and waffles

- using as sauce and dipping

- using as spread to sandwich, turkey slices and hamburger.

- using as appetizer

- mixing with yogurt

Have you tried pepper jelly? What do you think?

# Previous postings of food and varieties:

- Are Raw Peanuts Good for Health? - Food Variety 6

- Late Harvest of Satsuma Orange in the Yard - Food Variety 7

Millions are Bitten by Snakes Every Year – Part 1

Wednesday, October 6, 2021

Black snake on my back yard

I found black snake and its skin at least twice at my back yard recently. My neighbors said that the snake is black racer, possibly.

This kind of snake is not venomous, it visits yard to search for food. Its natural foods include:

- insects

- lizards

- rodents

- bird and its eggs.

The black racer actives at daylight, it is the reason why I found the snake about mid day.

Moreover, as reported by World Health Organization (WHO, 2021), you might surprise that more than 5 million people are bitten by snakes world wide each year.

Flowers in the bushes, illustration.

Then, snakes, especially venomous species bitten lead to:

- die reach up to 138 thousand

- amputated around 400 thousand

- caused disabilities up to 400 thousand

You might wonder: what countries have the higher death due to snakebites?

# To be continued at Part 2

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Local Jelly at the Farmer Market – Part 1 - Food Variety 15

Friday, October 1, 2021

Pepper Jelly, the local product

Bulldog Pepper Jelly is a brand name only. It is homemade jelly which I believe to be produced and sold in our state only, Louisiana, so far.

Quite difficult to find this brand in groceries across our city, but, luckily I found it in the one of farmer markets close to our home.

There are four types of jellies in the market:

- Roasted Garlic Pepper Jelly

- Jalapeno Pepper Jelly

- Strawberry Pepper Jelly

- Roasted Pecan Pepper Jelly

The price is US$1.62 per ounce (28 gram), expensive compared to manufactured jelly sold in:

- groceries

- supermarket

- Amazon

Jars of pepper jellies on the shelves

However, Bulldog Pepper Jelly is made traditionally, hence fresh and high quality product. I think.

International friends might wonder: what is pepper jelly? What its taste like?

# To be continued to part 2

## Previous postings of food and varieties:

- Have you Tasted Red Pear? - Food Variety 1

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- Harvest Fresh Chili from the Pot Routinely - Food Variety 3

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