Showing posts with label Health-Virus. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Health-Virus. Show all posts

What are Ingredients in the Biontech-Pfizer Vaccine? – Virus 33

Thursday, December 31, 2020

Wild plant at our backyard

About 1 million American, especially seniors (above 75 years old) and medical workers relate to Coronavirus have been shot of covid 19 vaccine.

We might wonder what are ingredient of Covid 19 vaccine, Pfizer – Biontech? Based on several sources, here are inside of vaccine:

1) Active ingredient called mRNA

- mRNA stimulates human cells to produce spike protein, similar protein on the surface of Coronavirus

- immune system then create antibodies in respond. We will have immunity to protect our body from Coronavirus infection.

2) Lipid

- this ingredient is like fat, not soluble in water

- Lipid to encapsulate and protect mRNA with “bubble.” Hence, the mRNA is not easily destroyed.

- there are four kinds of lipid in the vaccine, they are: ALC- 0315; ALC- 0159; 1,2- distearoyl- sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine; and Cholesterol.

Autumn leaves colors

3) Sugar

- sucrose is needed to block nanoparticles in the vaccine from clumping up when stored at minus 70 (-70) degree Celcius in the refrigerator.

4) Salts

- to make vaccine to be accepted by human body’s environment.

- four type of salts in the Covid 19 vaccine: “potassium chloride, monobasic potassium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate and sodium chloride.”

You might know about “conspiracy theory” of microchip or robot in the Biontech-Pfizer vaccine.

Yes, lipid in the vaccine is nanoparticles because of their tiny size. It is not microchip or robot or micro computer. “Nanoparticles are lipid droplets, the fatty molecular.” 

When Will Kids Get a Covid 19 Vaccine? - Virus 32

Sunday, December 20, 2020


Santa and snowman, illustration only

People in UK and USA have been vaccinated, then followed by other countries soon. Unfortunately, there is age limit for current covid 19 vaccines.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of USA recommended Pfizer – BioNTech vaccine for certain ages only, especially for people of 16 years old and over.

The main reasons that the vaccine are safe and effective for this group (adult age) so far. The question then:

When Will children Get Covid 19 Vaccine?

To answer this question, the kid must follow the clinical trials first in order to find out:

- the right doses

- vaccine effectiveness on kids

- the safe doses.

- the level of immune responses

White Rooster at back yard

It is important for children to get vaccine, because their number is above 20% of population, and like adults, they may get sick of corona virus as well.

The data revealed that more than 1.1 millions kids have been infected by Sars Covid 2 virus in the USA.

There is sense of urgency to start vaccine trial for children. Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Dr. Anthony S. Fauci mentioned the trial will likely on January, 2021.

3,000 kids with ages range from 12 to 18 years old are planned to involve in the vaccine testing. Two possible vaccines are:

- Pfizer – Biontech vaccines

- Moderna vaccine

Hope, we know the result soon, no later than end of 2021. 

Is AstraZeneca Covid 19 Vaccine Suitable for Poor Countries? - Virus 31

Tuesday, December 8, 2020

Lemon grass, just for illustration

At previous post, we compare two vaccines, Pfizer – Biontech Vs Moderna (you may read at: Vaccine Efficacy Rate Increases from 90% to 94.5% - Virus 27 

I just make summary of those two vaccines:

1) Pfizer – Biontech vaccines

- efficacy rate is 95% (increasing from previously at 90% rate)
- price US$ 20 per dose
- need specific freezer to store, F minus 94 (C minus 70) degrees.

2) Moderna vaccines

- efficacy rate is 94.5%
- price US$ 38 per dose
- can be stored in the freezer with temperature F minus 4 (C minus 20) degree, “available in the most drug stores or doctor offices.” Not big deal to distribute to “rural areas” in America, Europe, Canada or Australia.

How about with UK vaccine called as AstraZeneca – Oxford vaccine?

Yards in the neighborhood, illustration only

The advantages of “UK vaccine called as AstraZeneca – Oxford” vaccine are:

- very low price, US$ 3 to US$ 4
- can be stored in normal freezer (household refrigerators), available in most parts of developing countries.

The 70% efficacy rate could be increased to 90% by two shots:

- first shot at ½ dose.
- second shot at full dose.

Actually, many industry and devoloping countries ordered AstraZeneca – Oxford vaccine, some of them are:

- European Union
- UK
- Canada
- Australia
- Japan
- China
- Brazil
- Egypt
- Indonesia

If you could choose, which vaccines do you like?

Black Market of a Fake Covid 19 Test Result – Virus 30

Thursday, December 3, 2020

Bottles with flowers painting

Many countries require Covid 19 test for passengers to get onboard. It is sound good to prevent spreading of diseases.

The countries imposes test requirement and need negative test certificates include, not limited to:

- France

- Brazil

- Austria

- Cambodia

- Cyprus

- Czech Republic

- Cyprus

- Estonia

- Germany

- Greece

- Iceland

A cat sits nicely on the tree, just for illustration

Unfortunately, this requirement trigger black market to provide fake result without test.

The fake result means “negative” test result. The negative result is conveyed in the digital certificates. Then, this fake certificate is shown to authorities to get permit to travel anywhere.

What is the cost of fake certificate of covid 19 test result?

A piece of fake test result price is varies from places to places, country to country:

- could cost from US$ 180 to US$ 360 at “the Paris' Charles de Gaulle Airport,” France.

- cost between US$ 65 (Blackburn) to US$ 196 (Bradford) in England

- between US$ 30 to US 50 in many developing countries

Do you hear about a fake certificate of Covid 19 test results? What do you think?

When Will be the First Shot of Covid 19 Vaccine? - Virus 29

Friday, November 27, 2020
Vaccine production in December and per month afterward

The bad news that Corona virus causes increasing of infection and deaths in recent days.

Good news, American people will get vaccine shots soon, probably by first or second weeks of December 2020. Quicker than predicted.

Vaccine inventors, Pfizer and BioNTech applied emergency use of their vaccine to “the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).” on November 20, 2020.

Emergency use is fast track vaccine authorization. The normal authorization usually take months. The process then as following:

- from November 20 to December 9, 2020 about two or three weeks, FDA will process the application.

- on December 10, 2020, the independent committee to review and vote the application.

- from December 11 to December 14, 2020, then FDA will make final determination and decision to authorize using of Covid 19 vaccines.

When the best guess of the first shot? 

Flax Lilies, just for illustration

The first shot is likely between December 11 to December 14, 2020. December 13 is the best possibility D day.

The vaccine is free of cost in the USA. There are 3 phases of vaccine rationale based on group population:

1) Phase 1 – 15% population

- the population includes front line health workers, first respondents and cleaners

- who have two or three preexisting conditions

- 65 or older who live in nursing home

2) Phase 2 – 35% population

- all people of 65 or older

- high risks workers such as teachers and social workers

3) Phase 3 – 45%

- who works in industries such as hotels, factorie and bank

4) Phase 4 – 5%

- whoever living in the USA

It is said that herd immunity will be achieved if 70% - 90% population get vaccine (please read previous post: Is Herd Immunity without Vaccine the Worst Strategy? - Virus 9)

In case of Covid 19, 70% population is vaccined is good enough. Thus, we will back to normal life about in May, 2021.

Have You Heard about Second Infection of Corona Virus? - Virus 28

Monday, November 23, 2020

A kind of succulent in the corner, just for illustration.

Based on our knowledge that if we infected by let’s say “virus A,” our immune systems develops antibody.

In case of future infection by “virus A,” our body’s immune system will contain this virus quite easily.

Unfortunately, a patients may get re-infection, after recovering. For simplicity:

- a patient let’s say “Robert” infected by virus Sars Cov 2 (Covid 19)

- “Robert” then recovered after treatment

- several months later, “Robert” may get second infection (re-infection) of corona virus with or without symptoms.

One case in America showed that the second infection more severe than the first one.

In this case, it is fact that corona viruses at first and second infection are different strains. It might be the reason why patient’s immune system did not recognize the second strain of virus.

A lost cat in our neighborhood, just for illustration.

Other reasons for reinfection are:

- immunity is fragile to face Corona virus

- the immunity is weaken over time, might be for several months only to fight virus.

Moreover, cases of re-infections are increasing recently. Some countries with re-infection cases:

- Mexico, 285 cases

- Qatar, 243 cases

- Sweden, 150 cases

- Brazil, 95 cases

- Netherland, 50 cases

- South Korea, 24 cases

Many scientists said that these numbers are underestimated, due to lack of reports.

Do you aware of re-infection of Sars Cov 2 virus (Covid 19)?

Take care, stay healthy and virus free.

Vaccine Efficacy Rate Increases from 90% to 94.5% - Virus 27

Tuesday, November 17, 2020

The Covid 19 vaccine from Pfizer and Biontech companies
(Credit to Health Industry Hub)

Several days ago, we learned that cooperation between Germany pharmacy company, Biontech and USA company, Pfizer produced vaccine to contain coronavirus, Sars Cov 2.

The Pfizer and Biontech provide data of 90% “efficacy” rate of vaccine called BNT162b2 from third clinical trial.

Then, we got second surprise when Moderna announced 94.5% “efficacy” rate of its Covid 19 vaccine.

You might wonder what the meaning of efficacy rate and effectiveness is.

The simple meaning is that:

- the result of treatments (trials) in the ideal and control condition for “efficacy.” 

- the result of treatments (trials) in the real world for effectiveness term.

Moreover, what are differences between Pfizer and Biontech – Pfizer vaccines?

Moderna Covid 19 vaccine (credit to Reuters)

Several advantages of Moderna vaccine (called as mRNA-1273) are:

- can be maintained in the refrigerator with temperature of F –4 (C –20) for 30 days.

- refrigerators are available in the most doctor offices and all drug stores, both in the cities and rural areas.

- easy to deliver

In contrast, Pfizer – Biontech could be maintained 5 days only with the same refrigerator temperatures.

In term of price:

- US$ 38 a dose for Moderna

- US$ 20 a doses for Pfizer – Biontech

However, 90% efficacy for Pfizer – Biontech and 94.5% for Moderna are great performance vaccines so far.

These two vaccines will be produced about 50 million doses at the end of this year (2020) and 1.3 billion doses by next year (2021).

It is expected that these vaccines to have great impact globally, and we will soon back to normal life before pandemic.

Chemothesis - What a Kind of Covid 19 symptom? - Virus 26

Thursday, November 12, 2020


A concrete table with two benches.

We have known that there are a lot of symptoms for whom infected with Covid 19.

Some well known symptoms or common symptoms are:

- headaches

- fatigue

- muscle pain

- joint pain.

- or other persistence of pain related symptoms

For severe infections, the symptoms might be following:

- encephalitis, cause brain inflammation

- Chronic pain, long term pain.

Moreover, you may like to read my relevant previous post about common symptoms for infected persons

- How to Know Someone Infected by Wuhan Virus? - Virus 1.

A cat, just for illustration

Moreover, the strange symptom for me is called chemethesis. It is happen when an infected person almost lost his or her taste sense, but he or she able to detect cool peppermints and chilies.

From “,” the summary of chemethesis is following:

Chemesthesis is defined as the chemical sensibility of the skin and mucus membranes. Chemesthetic sensations arise when chemical compounds activate receptors associated with other senses that mediate pain, touch, and thermal perception. Examples of chemesthetic sensations include the burn-like irritation from chili pepper, the coolness of menthol in mouthwashes and topical analgesic creams, the stinging or tingling of carbonation in the nose and mouth, and the tear-induction of onions.

Hope, no one of us be infected by virus Sars Cov 2. Stay safe, healthy and virus free.

A Possible Weapon to Kill Coronavirus was Found by a Teenager – Virus 25

Wednesday, October 28, 2020


Pumpkins in front the house, just for illustration

We have talked about possible drugs and vaccines to contain coronavirus (Sars Cov 2) at previous posts, some are:

What is a Monoclonal Antibody to Treat Donald Trump? - Virus 22

What is mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine? - Virus 15

Updates of Vaccines to Combat Covid-19 – Virus 12

Is Remdesivir a Potential Drug Against Covid-19? - Virus 11

A 14 years old teenager, Anika Chebrolu from Texas, proposed a new weapon, a kind of “specific” molecule to fight virus.

She was the winner of “2020 3M Young Scientist Challenge,” and got US$ 25,000 prize.

As we know that “Hemaglutinin” is an important “protein” in influenza vaccines. What is the Hemaglutinin?

One of the street in the neighborhood, just for illustration

Hemaglutinin is “antigen glycoprotein” found on the virus surface, in this case is the influenza virus.

The antigen glycoprotein to bind virus and infected cells, while this happening, then viral RNA genome penetrates into cytoplasm of cells.

They are replicating in the host (human) by using DNA polymerase of host cell. Replicating from one to thousands over time.

Why Hemaglutinin (antigen glycoprotein) is important in vaccines?

Vaccines such as an influenza vaccine is designed to trigger immune system to produce antibody to fight Hemaglutinin, then control virus.

Moreover, by using a method, namely “in silico methodology,” Anika Chebrolu found a “specific molecule” to bind spike protein on the corona virus, covid 19, SARS CoV 2 virus.

This “specific molecule” may be used to develop Covid 19 vaccine or drugs in the near future. Hence, we will have a lot of weapons to contain Coronavirus.